Thunder Megaphone – A Glacial Valley Can Focus and Amplify Thunder Into a Most Extraordinary Sound

We’ve all heard thunder, and we all know what causes it. Many of us have heard two distinct kinds of thunder, but perhaps we never really noticed or thought about it. Recently, I heard a third kind of thunder.

“Ordinary” thunder – a thoroughly extraordinary sound, but the kind of thunder we hear most often – happens when lightning occurs at some distance from the observer. The initial sound of the lightning bolt echoes off surrounding objects and air masses. Because it is echoed so many times, the thunder stretches out into many, many seconds, even though the initial sound might have lasted a second or two at most. Moreover, because the initial sound echoes off soft things with indistinct surfaces – clouds, thermoclines, and weather fronts – and because many echoes reach the ears of the observer at different times, the original sound is greatly distorted. Almost all high frequency components are filtered out, and the observer hears mostly a low-pitched rumble.

When lightning strikes very close to the observer, within a few hundred feet, the sound is entirely different. The observer might not hear echoes of the thunder at all, but only the pure initial sound. It is a single, sharp, intense “POW!” It may be followed by a much quieter, but still loud, whistling or hissing sound.

But what about that third kind of lightning?

I was camping alone in Crawford Notch State Park in northern New Hampshire, when thunderstorms began rolling into the valley just after dinner. I tidied up my campsite just before the rain started, then retreated to my tent. One thunderstorm passed without much incident.

Darkness had fallen by the time the second thunderstorm rolled up from the south. I occupied myself by counting the time interval between lightning and thunder to track the movements of the storms. Fifteen seconds before the thunder rolled up from somewhere west of Mount Bemis, and I knew the storm was just under three miles southwest of me. Seven seconds between the flash and the rumble beyond Frankenstein Cliff, and I knew the storm was passing nearly a mile and a half to my west.

And then it happened!

A flash. I counted eleven seconds. And I heard a sound unlike any thunder I had ever heard before.

The cacophony included at least half a dozen rapid repetitions of the “POW!” of a nearby lightning strike. But at the same time, there was the rumbling and roaring of “ordinary” thunder, but much, much louder than usual.

Before I could figure out what that sound was, there was another flash somewhere to the north. Again I counted eleven seconds, and again I heard that utterly incredible crackling and powing and rumbling and roaring.

This time, I figured it out.

It was a lightning strike right within the upper reaches of Crawford Notch just a couple of miles north of me. It was right within a gigantic stone megaphone formed by Webster Cliff on the east, Mount Field and Mount Willey on the west, and the old glacial cirque of Mount Willard for a backstop on the north.

And this 1,500 foot deep, three-mile-long granite megaphone was pointed right at Dry River Campground.

Yes, the beautiful U-shaped glacial valley of Crawford Notch is a nearly perfect megaphone, albeit open on top. The bare stone faces of Mount Willard and Webster Cliff echoed the initial “POW!” of the thunder almost undistorted. The western slope of the notch is a bit more heavily wooded, but there’s enough bare ledge and rockslide there to provide a pretty good echo. The open top of the notch was covered by the underbelly of the thunderstorm itself, which provided enough of a soft echoic surface to create the usual rumbling of thunder in addition to the clean “POW!” echoes off the rock faces.

But all of this sound was extraordinarily loud because of the megaphone that focused it all right on me and my campsite.

After I got this all figured out, there was a third lightning flash in the north. Yes, eleven second later, there was that glorious, unearthly sound again.

I wondered why I had never heard this kind of thunder before. I have probably experienced thunderstorms in Crawford Notch at least a dozen times over the years, but never heard the Thunder Megaphone.

My best guess is that I probably have heard it before, but never noticed it. Most of the times I’ve camped there, it was with a crowd of friends and family. Much goes on when a thunderstorm rolls in. Ponchos have to be broken out and put on, while at the same time, various disorderly what-nots need to get stashed into cars and tents before they get soaked. There is a bit of yelling and shouting to be done, and paradoxically among the mayhem, kids and dogs need to have their fears calmed. Meanwhile, tarps over the tents and picnic tables are flapping in the gales, making a poor imitation of thunder themselves.

In all my 25 years camping in Crawford Notch, this may have been the first time I experienced a thunderstorm while I was camping there alone. There was no tarp over the tent, and I had anticipated the thunderstorm well enough to get everything into the car long before the rain started.

So, when the lightning and thunder came, I had nothing to do but observe.

What a treat!

I half hope we get a thunderstorm the next time we go camping in the mouth of the Thunder Megaphone.

Traveling in Mexico: Internet Cafes in Mexico City’s Zona Rosa

INTERNET CAFES IN THE ZONA ROSA

While you're tooling around Mexico, you'll want to stay connected. Mexico City has excellent internet café facilities even for those who Spanish is not the greatest. English is spoken in many internet cafés in the Zona Rosa and Historic District. Here are some of your e-café options.

Café Internet Victal

Address: Hamburgo No. 108 local 101 at the corner of Genova

Phone: 514 – 4161, 672 – 3821

With a going rate of 20 pesos per hour, this is one of the cheapest full-service Internet cafés in the area. Chats, computer games, and office programs (word, Excel, etc.) are also available. The staff is knowledgeable and helpful. The Victal is open from 9am to 9pm Monday through Saturday and is open on Sundays half a day. There are many computer-related services available – if it has to do with computers, they can probably do it or have it. Getting into the place is tricky at first. From the corner of Genova walk down Hamburgo about a quarter of a block. Enter the building through an arcade doorway and go up to the second floor. The entrance will be there but you'll have to look closely for the signs. The only visible signs from the street are above your head at the second story level with no clue for finding the entrance. You may have a short wait to get onto a computer but this place is worth the trouble.

Coffee Net – Zona Rosa

Address: Florencia No. 35 Local E (between Hamburgo and Londres)

Phone: 533 – 0844, 533 – 1760

An Internet café – cafeteria featuring a variety of gourmet sandwiches, salads, gourmet coffes and cappuccinos. The hourly rate is 25 pesos. Services are acceptable quality but a bit costly. Centrally located with good quality but pricey food.

Coffee Mail

Address: Amberes No. 61

A 24 pesos hourly rate internet café with standard fare. Similar in structure and price to Coffee Net but with less selection of sandwiches, coffees and foods. Regular customers typically come in to check or send e-mails. Other services are available but not heavily used.

Café Internet Red 2000

Address: in the Insurgentes metro station plaza

Phone: no phone

After exiting the metro at the Insurgentes station, this Internet café is in the outside plaza surrounding the station entrances. Long distance phone services are available through the internet. Rates are: 15 minutes 8 pesos, 30 minutes 16 pesos, 45 minutes 24 pesos, one hour 30 pesos. Only sodas and packed snacks are available.

Conecte Cafe

Address: Liverpool No. 140 (near Amberes)

Phone: 587 – 6179, 587 – 7737

A very well run internet café with full computer services including scanner, photoshop, translations, printing, Microsoft office and MP3 software available, all at reasonable rates. The internet use rate is 20 pesos per hour but there are only a few computers. Located across from Harmon Hall and Quick Learning building. There is also another Zona Rosa location at Genova No. 1. 71 on the first floor near Londres.

NOTE: There are other Internet cafés around the Zona Rosa area with varyingly higher prices for similar services.

In the Historic District:

LAFOEL Internet Service

Address: Doncelles No. 80 first floor (two blocks from the cathedral)

Phone: 512-3584, 521-2978

Open Monday to Friday from 9 am – 8 pm and Saturdays from 10 am – 5 pm. Rates for services are: 10 pesos for 15 minutes, 20 pesos for 30 minutes and 30 pesos for one hour. Conveniently located near the Zocalo but a bit on the high side for service costs. Okay just to check mail or send a quick message though. They also rent computer equipment. Just be sure to confirm the rates before signing anything or leaving the promises with equipment.

Finally, be sure to check out my other articles in the two continuing series: Teaching English in Mexico and Traveling in Mexico. If you would like more information, have questions or comments, the author can be e-mailed, see below.

The Best Medicine That is FREE – Oxygen!

How does our environment affect our Oxygen take?

I was born Santa Monica and raised in Southern California. In the early 1960's, my family moved to San Clemente on the Pacific Ocean located at the very bottom of Orange County. The town's population was under 5,000 and it seemed to be a million miles from Los Angeles with its smog filled skies.
With all the hysteria that currently exists on Global Warming and Polluted Air, let me tell you a personal story to prove to you how far we have come, at least in relation to the air we breathe. Often we do not hear the good news, only the bad. It makes better headlines.

During the summertime in Grade School, without cable television, video games, internet, etc. my friends and I spend most of our days outside riding bikes, hiking, swimming, surfing, fishing or playing sports. In other words, we were constantly exercising and breathing a lot of air. Further, overweight or obese children were a minority in my school. Gee! I wonder why?

This was also the time period before catalytic converters and emission controls on cars. Even with our distance from Los Angeles and Orange County only had a total of about 700,000 people, (today, San Clemente has over 65,000 by itself) I recall numerous Smog Alerts and days when I had breathed so much smog that my lungs hurt and I had to go home and lay down.

Since I can not remember a Smog Alert in 30 years and Orange County, by itself, now with over 3,000,000 people, it is obvious that we have made incredible progress in cleaning our air. Unfortunately, political agendas have a tendency of hiding the truth from the public. I am not saying we do not have work to do, but let's celebrate the progress we have made.

That said, it is true that combustion, respiration, deforestation, and man-made processes have reduced Oxygen levels in our air. Further, any big city is going to have some levels of pollution floating around that you will breathe on any given day. And not only are we breathing pollution from the outside world, but also from the inside one. Indoor pollution and lack of oxygen intake can become an even worse challenge.

In our home, we like to keep the windows open as much as possible because we like to constantly have fresh air moving through the house. I can not stand stale air. I think we have all had the experience of entering a home or building and immediately realizing that the air has not been changed in days.

It's just common sense that when you are stay inside with all the window's and doors closed, you are breathing in and out is what you or others have already breathed in and out. This can lead to Carbon Dioxide buildup which most of us know can be deadly. We are reminded of this at least once a year when some "bright bulb, rocket scientist" that thinks its okay to use his barbeque or Coleman stove to heat up the house. Unfortunately, the consequences are often deadly. So, another free solution to increasing your Oxygen intake is to simply open up your windows and breathe deeply. Just make sure that there is not a huge diesel truck idling close by!

Hey sports fans. Here is another solution if you got the bucks!

A common but expensive technique for increasing oxygenation levels involves the use of an incredibly complex device called a hyperbaric chamber such as those commonly used for treating varying suffering from decompression sickness.

The elevated oxygen saturation's provided by hyperbaric therapies have been proven clinically effective in wound care, gangrene, carbon monoxide poisoning, certain types of cancers, speeding healing in burn patients, treatment of anemia, etc.

The chamber is actually a great big tank in which the patient is placed and then pressurized so that their bodies can absorb more oxygen. The increased ambient pressure elevates the partial pressure of oxygen in the bloodstream and can permit oxygenation levels equivalent to 140% at sea level. The medical community knows that when nothing else will help, Oxygen can come to the rescue and work miracles!

A great many persons, including Hollywood celebrities, routinely use such chambers for increasing their oxygen levels. The 'rich and famous spend thousands of dollars and countless hours in these chambers. But do not you think there has to be an easier, safer and more affordable way to give your body more Oxygen?

As we have discussed, learn to breathe effectively on an ongoing basis, keep the fresh air in your home or work environment and do your best to avoid breathing around known attorneys.

More incredible benefits from Oxygen!

1) Improves chemical imbalances in the body.

2) Relieves headache

3) Accelerates healing time for injuries

4) Lowers blood pressure

5) Relieves stress and anxiety

6) Allows the body to direct enough oxygen to its primary functions without having to draw on valuable reserves.

7) Helps reverse premature aging

8) Relieves symptoms of PMS in women

9) Helps replace damage free radicals

10) Helps neutralize harmful toxins in cells, tissues and bloodstream.

I hope this article will help you create health in your daily life.

More helpful information.

Ebooks
http://www.vocaltrainingwarrior.com/ebooks

You Tube FREE Vocal Training Videos
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-DfiCEG35T4

Free Newsletter

October Newsletter
http://l.b5z.net/i/u/6106319/f/October_Newsletter.pdf

Thanks for reading. See you next time

Jonathan Morgan Jenkins

Benefits of Internet Marketing Services With The New Approach to Marketing

The internet has radically changed the face of shopping as we know it. Now the virtual marketplace is becoming every bit as important as the high street. With this new form of shopping coming a new form of marketing which is not necessarily the same as traditional marketing and therefore demands a new approach and also a degree of stepping away from the mindset of traditional marketing such as television and magazine advertising. The positive side of this however, is that the potential of internet marketing is unlimited. It not only moves your business out of the locality in which you are based, but also outside of your national borders. It is creating a global marketplace with access to billions of customers. The internet population of China alone is bigger than the population of the US. Therefore, it is imperative that you make the correct decisions when it comes to online marketing and the proposal of internet marketing services. If you do so there are a number of important benefits to be had.

Cost-Effective

Internet marketing services can be expensive; however, when you take into account the impact they can have the cost-benefit ratio far thats that of traditional marketing techniques. Due to the nature of the internet by choosing the right internet marketing services it is possible to reach a massive target population. A good internet marketing company, although costly, will be able to work out the exact demographic that your business targets and assist you with reaching them.

Specialists

Whilst you are paying for their services it is important to realize that they are specialists in their field and you are not only paying for their services but also their knowledge. It is important that you never assume to know what an online customer wants or how to reach them as you may simply not be correct and then your market will fail to be reached. There are millions of websites out there that have missed the mark and receive few or no visitors.

Strategic

A good internet marketing services provider will also be able to assist you in developing a very strategic marketing plan taking into account the many different elements of internet marketing such as SEO, advertising, and social media marketing. It would be extremely difficult for an internet marketing novice to be able to truly engage with any of these forms of marketing as they have particular nuances.

Increase Sales

Ultimately one of the main benefits of engaging an internet marketing services provider is the fact that they have the experience to help you increase your sales. This is the end game of the online marketplace – driving traffic to your website and converting that traffic to sales. Not only is it important to work out how to get customers to your website it is also important that once there your website is well-built enough to actually convert sales. A company with a good reputation for providing internet marketing services will be able to assist you with all angles of marketing to ensure you get the most for your money. Remember there are already people out there searching for your product; it is just a matter of making your company visible to them.